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2020학년(2019년) EBS 수능특강 영어독해연습 1강 변형문제 60문항입니다. 문항번호 01~06
When temperatures near 0℃, water molecules start bonding with one another to form a crystal structure. The hydrogen atoms of each molecule connect to the oxygen atoms of other molecules. The resulting structure creates a greater amount of space between the molecules than there was when the molecules floated freely about in a liquid state. All that extra space between the molecules is why ice is less dense the liquid water – and the reason ice floats. This characteristic of water is good news for fish and other animals that live underwater wherever the temperatures drop to freezing. When the water in a lake, for instance, begins to freeze, the first tiny ice crystals that form remain on the surface. Eventually, a layer of floating ice will form on the water’s surface, which seals in the liquid water below and keeps it from freezing. If water became more dense when it froze – the way most substances do – then the ice crystals would keep sinking to the bottom. Eventually, the entire lake would be frozen solid from top to bottom – which would be bad news for the fish.
I witnessed a surprising set of behaviors between a group of chimpanzees with whom I periodically interacted. Sarah likes to look at books, so when I visit I occasionally bring her children’s books that can withstand chimpanzee handling for at least a few minutes. I gave Sarah her book and before she could really start “reading” it, Harper, who at this point in time was older but still mischievous, came over and took it away. Sarah didn’t struggle with Harper when he took it. Then moments later, Sheba, a very smart female chimpanzee, who didn’t appear to me to have noticed Harper’s behavior because she was happily eating her dried mangoes, went over to Harper and took the book from him. This in itself wouldn’t be surprising as taking things that others have is typical among members of a group that aren’t clearly dominant. What was surprising was that rather than keeping it herself, she promptly gave it back to Sarah. There were no vocalizations that I was aware of that might indicate Sarah was distressed by Harper’s thievery, nor that Sheba was trying to appease any distress. It just looked to me as though Sheba was setting things right. No one told her what to do – She just autonomously determined that the book belonged to Sarah.
One dimension of the mind’s innate search for meaning has to do with the compelling power of purpose. For example, a girl of about nine years old recently described what she understood to be the causes and best treatment for lung cancer. She was extremely articulate. Her interest had been sparked by the fact that her mother had been diagnosed with the disease, prompting her to read as much as she could find on the subject. Learning that is reducible to memorizing facts that are true or false is different from learning that engages actor-centered, adaptive decision making. This kind of decision making is the result of an authentic question generated by the learner on the basis of a genuine need to know and is one that inevitably requires more complex thinking. It is the search for meaning that organizes actor-centered questions and encourages the use of higher-order functions.
My father had a favorite story about social practices which he learned from his father: An enormous herd of sheep was moving down a country road, led by a wise old ram. As the lead sheep approached an intersection, a young lady on a bicycle was approaching on the crossroad. The old ram realized that if she had to wait for all those sheep to cross, she would be delayed for hours. The old ram knew he couldn’t stop, because of all the sheep pushing from behind. Being the gentleman that he was, he came up with a creative solution: he jumped high in the air, giving her room to pass safely under and continue on her way. Late that night, as the young lady was safely at home and having supper, the sheep were still jumping over the same intersection, but no one knew why. What had started out as a creative idea turned into a senseless institution.
Many improvising actors talk about both the high they get from a good improvisation, and the terror he feel when a performance isn’t going well. The unpredictability of group creativity can be frightening because failure is public. If a painter fails, he or she can paint over the canvas; a writer can crumple up the paper and throw it away. But imagine if writers had to publish every single one of their manuscripts – that’s the situation improv actors find themselves in every night. Mark Gordon, a director of and actor in The Compass Players, said, “It always felt to me like taking your pants off in front of an audience. A little terrifying.” Ted Flicker, director of the first St. Louis Compass and founder of the New York group The Premise, said, “Unless you’ve actually tasted what improvising in front of an audience feels like, you can’t imagine the horror of it.”
Dr. Zajonc’s drive theory claims that the mere presence of an audience is arousing, and that this increases the tendency to produce dominant responses. If the dominant responses are appropriate or correct in relation to the task, performance will be enhanced, but if inappropriate, performance will be impaired compared to when the person performs the task alone. This means that tasks we are skilled at, which are well learned and of which we have a long history of experience are likely to be enhanced in front of an audience. In contrast, tasks at which we are not skilled or those in the early stages of learning will be performed even more poorly in front of an audience. Take the example of teaching; Zajonc’s drive theory predicts that an experienced, skilled teacher will do well in front of a class. On the other hand, a new teacher may practise and rehearse at home and be satisfied with his or her performance. However, when the new teacher has to stand in front of a class he or she is likely to perform poorly, both according to his or her own expectations and to those of the students in the class.